Coding scheme for systems
variable description values
1 system_full_name Name of the system or application
2 publications Publications studying/presenting this system
3 year First year of publication for related papers
4 primary_modality Primary modality of learner production (user input) in the system Spoken, Written
5 system_type Type of system as per the proposed dialogue-based CALL typology (see 4.2. A typology of dialogues and systems) Narrative, Form-focused, Goal-oriented, Reactive
6 dialogue_type Type of instructional dialogue as per the proposed dialogue-based CALL typology (see 4.2. A typology of dialogues and systems) Branching, Form-focused exercises, Elicited, Meaning-constrained, Form-constrained, Contextualized, Free
7 form_constraint Constraints imposed on the form of user production limited syntax, list of correct and incorrect utterances, list of utterances w diff meanings, list of words, none, rearrange blocks, rearrange blocks, gap-filling, use target structures, verbatim prompt
8 meaning_constraint Constraints imposed on the meaning of user production context, cues, determined answer, determined answers, determined answers to be translated, elicitation sentences, given, instructions, list of utterances, list of utterances w same meaning, meaning is irrelevant, next turn set, none, physical context, questions, system-init., task, text to be translated, visual context
9 form_c_type Type of formal constraints pre-set, explicit, none
10 meaning_c_type Type of meaning/semantic constraints pre-set, explicit, implicit, none
11 corrective_feedback Type of corrective feedback provided by the system on learner production Explicit, Explicit (on pronunciation), Implicit, Implicit (recast), No
12 target_language Target language (L2) to be practiced in the system
13 initiative Management of initiative in the dialogue (who controls the dialogue flow) System, System + mixed, User, User + mixed
14 virtual_world Does the interaction occurs in a virtual world (visually represented or not)? ✔/✘
15 embodied_agent Has the system agent an embodied representation (e.g., avatar)? ✔/✘
16 physical_robot Is the system implemented into a virtual robot? ✔/✘
17 gamification Is the system gamified in any way (e.g., emphasis on scoring and competition, implementation of gaming logics)? ✔/✘
18 user_modelling Does the system implement user modelling or user adaptivity? ✔/✘
19 framework Eventual dialogue system/chatbot framework used to develop the system
20 dialogue_model Type of dialogue modelling branching, fixed path, frame, graph, matching, n/a, plan, plan / branching (?), probabilistic matching, probabilistic matching (levenstein distance with corpus utterances)
21 type_of_interaction Type of interaction goal-oriented, open-ended, system-guided
22 rules_vs_data_driven Is the application built on a (handcrafted) rules-driven or (probabilistic) data-driven dialogue system? Corpus-based, Dialogue models derived from corpus, Handcrafted rules, Handcrafted rules (mostly), Learning from previous interactions, Rules learned from literary corpus, Rules learned from SCMC corpus
23 processing_for_dialogue_control Steps of processing for the user utterance for managing the dialogue
24 depth_of_processing Depth of natural language processing (i.e., does it go beyond surface processing/pattern matching and try to extract meaning?) none, shallow, medium, deep, NA
25 breadth_of_processing Breadth of natural language processing (i.e., does it expect a limited number of possible utterances/words, from a very specific domain, or is it very extensive in the possible inputs that are considered?) none, narrow, medium, broad, NA
26 strand Strand/field of publication, based on the main references cited, main keywords used and orientation of the content (see 3.3 and 3.4) Chatbots, SDS/CA, CAPT, ICALL
27 system_abbr Abbreviated name of the system (used in figures)
28 publicly_available Is this system available to the general public? ✔/✘
29 url URL of web page where the system is located or presented in details
30 notes Additional notes