3.2. Qualitative techniques

Friedman, D. A. (2012). How to collect and analyze qualitative data. In A. Mackey & S. M. Gass (Eds.), Research methods in second language acquisition: A practical guide (pp. 180–200). Wiley-Blackwell.

Interview

Types

  • Semi-structured
  • Structured
  • Unstructured

Tools and processes

  • Interview guide/Set of questions
    • Designing interview questions
      • Open-ended questions vs. closed ended
      • Avoiding leading questions
      • Avoiding complex questions
      • Verify comprehensibility
  • Recording
    • Audio is almost always enough
  • Note-taking

Resources & references

Focus group and discussion group

≃ Collective interview

Observation

  • Observation principles
    • Participant observation
  • Recordings
  • Field notes
  • Checklists
  • Rubrics

Documental research

  • Teaching & learning materials
    • Textbooks
    • Handouts
  • Teacher management materials
    • Assessment records and notes
    • Lesson plans
  • Official and administrative materials
    • Regulation, legal or formal instructions from multiple management levels
Previous
Next