2. Summarizing and reviewing the literature

  • 2.1. Summarizing the literature

    Summarizing theories Contrasting empirical studies Understanding empirical results Statistical significance and p-value Effect size Meta-analysis Identifying gaps Citing and quoting

  • 2.2. Writing a literature review

    Li, S., & Wang, H. (2018). Traditional literature review and research synthesis. In A. Phakiti, P. De Costa, L. Plonsky, & S. Starfield (Eds.), The Palgrave Handbook of Applied Linguistics Research Methodology (pp.

  • 2.3 Academic formats and styles

    Iida, P., Ruegg, R., de Boer, M., Araki, N., & Agnello, M. F. (2021). The Concise APA Handbook: APA 7th edition. Information Age Publishing. It’s important to distinguish the APA bibliographic style, which only define how to format bibliographic references, and the APA style guidelines, which define both formatting rules in setting, typography, spelling, etc.